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        Design Techniques for Lighting System Configuration in Purification Workshop
         Hits:570 AddTime:2023/8/23 15:32:09
        Design techniques for configuring lighting systems in purification workshops, and how to design energy-saving and reasonable lighting systems for cleanroom purification projects in clean workshops? According to the current electricity level in China, the lighting standards for artificial lighting in China are generally lower than those in countries such as Europe and the United States. In fact, recently, the lighting levels of some Sino foreign joint ventures and foreign-owned dust-free workshops have been much higher than 2001x, reaching 300-500 1x. For operators working in closed and dust-free workshops, providing them with a bright and comfortable visual environment can greatly improve production efficiency and the yield of fine products. Therefore, it is beneficial to appropriately increase the level of artificial lighting in dust-free workshops, improve the visual hygiene of workers, and promote the development of the national economy. There are also significant differences in the illuminance of different clean industrial workshops according to process requirements. For example, the illuminance of mixed lighting in the electronic gun assembly workshop of the picture tube factory should reach 1000-3000 1x. In addition to general lighting, local lighting should also be installed. The proportion of local lighting to mixed lighting illuminance should not be too large, and the general lighting illuminance should be 5-15% of the mixed lighting illuminance.
        Clean rooms with only suspended ceilings have complex pipelines inside them. When laying electrical pipelines, it is important to avoid explosive gas pipelines as much as possible or take relevant measures; Lighting distribution boxes, switches, etc. that must be installed in the clean room should be concealed as much as possible. Wire and cable pipelines passing through the ceiling must be sealed to prevent dust and bacteria from entering the clean room.
        Choosing electronic ballasts or energy-saving inductive ballasts can also achieve the goal of energy conservation. Compared with traditional inductive ballasts, electronic ballasts and energy-saving inductive ballasts for fluorescent lamps have lower power consumption, higher energy efficiency factor, and can significantly save electricity expenses, but their prices are high.
        For example, if 5000 ballasts are used in a clean project, with a three shift working system and 24-hour electricity consumption, the use of electronic ballasts or energy-saving inductive ballasts can save electricity, as shown in the table below:
        From the above table, it can be seen that using electronic ballasts can save 240900kWh of electricity in one year. Calculated at a price of 0.5 yuan/kWh, it can save 120000 yuan per year; The use of energy-saving inductive ballasts can save 175200kWh of electricity in one year, and can save 87600 yuan in one year.
        In addition, energy-saving measures for lighting also include:
        Select reasonable illuminance standard values; Choose appropriate lighting methods, and use mixed lighting in places with high illumination requirements; Reasonably select lighting control methods, use zoning control of lighting according to the characteristics of lighting usage, and appropriately increase lighting switch points.
        The lighting requirements for dust-free workshops are higher than those for general factories, with low indoor ceilings and high energy consumption for lighting. Therefore, it is more suitable to use fluorescent lamps as light sources. However, choosing different types of fluorescent tubes is also important for improving light efficiency and saving energy. It is recommended to choose a T8 (36W) lamp tube with three primary colors of fluorescent powder, or a T5 (28W) lamp tube. The T8 type light tube produced in China in the late 1980s has a 15% to 30% improvement in light efficiency compared to the T12 (40W) type light tube produced in China for decades. It has gradually replaced the T12 type light tube and T5 type light tube was developed in the mid-1990s. Recently, a T2 type lamp tube has been developed. China has a history of producing T8 tubes for more than ten years, with stable quality and relatively large output. T5 tubes will be the development direction, but the production time is not yet long and can be chosen for use. The development of fluorescent powder materials in lamp tubes from ordinary powder to tricolor rare earth fluorescent powder is also an important symbol of technological progress.
        Dust free workshops are generally enclosed workshops with large column grids, large spans, large spaces, and no lighting windows. The "Code for Design of Dust Free Workshops" GB50073-2001 has clear regulations on the illuminance value of the light window and dust free workshop (see Table 9.2.3 in this specification), and stipulates that the general lighting in the mixed lighting of clean areas without lighting windows should not be less than 200 1x, which is one level higher than the 150 1x in GBJ73-84. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) "Indoor Lighting Guidelines" stipulate that the minimum illumination level for windowless factories cannot be less than 500 1x. At present, the country is formulating the "Lighting Design Standards for Industrial and Civil Buildings", and the illuminance standards in the new specifications will be greatly improved. However, considering the lighting adaptation of the production workshop, the illumination level of the corridors and lounges in the dust-free workshop should not differ significantly from the illumination level of the workplace. Generally, a difference of 1-2 levels is more appropriate, but the minimum should not be less than 100 1x. The standard for windowed and dust-free workshops is implemented in accordance with the current national standard "Lighting Design Standard for Industrial Enterprises" GB50034-92, just like for ordinary production workshops.
        Due to the shortage of electricity in China, the proportion of local lighting in mixed lighting has been expanded. If the spatial illumination is low, it is easy to generate glare and make people feel tired, but the brightness of the light source should not be too high. Linear light sources such as fluorescent lamps or incandescent lamps with frosted glass are often used.
        Secondly, for workshops with special requirements for light sources in dust-free workshops, such as fluorescent powder coating rooms in picture tube factories and lithography rooms in semiconductor factories, if yellow or red light sources must be used to prevent photosensitive materials from becoming photosensitive, yellow fluorescent tubes or low-pressure sodium lamps should be selected to meet their special requirements. There are also two types of yellow fluorescent tubes, one is to coat the inner wall of the tube with yellow fluorescent powder; Another type is a white fluorescent tube wrapped in a yellow plastic sleeve, which has a lower luminous flux than ordinary fluorescent lamps.
        In order to do a good job in the lighting design of a high cleanliness level clean room, first introduce the cleanliness level and clean air flow pattern of the dust-free workshop. In the new "Code for Design of Clean Workshops" GB50073-2001, there have been many modifications to the regulations on air cleanliness levels. GBJ73-84 stipulates that air cleanliness is divided into four levels, namely 100, 1000, 10000, and 100000. With the rapid development of microelectronics and integrated circuit industries, the requirements for air cleanliness in clean workshops are becoming higher and higher, requiring the control of dust particle size to 0.1 μ Below m, in order to align with international standards, the new standard adopts the relevant provisions of the international standard ISO14644-1, increasing the air cleanliness level from 4 levels to 9 levels, namely level 1 and level 2...... Level 9.
        The specification also specifies the selection of flow patterns for clean air: "For air cleanliness levels 1-4, vertical unidirectional flow should be used; for air cleanliness levels 5, vertical unidirectional flow or horizontal unidirectional flow should be used; for levels 6-9, non unidirectional flow should be used. The so-called airflow pattern refers to the reasonable design of the flow pattern and distribution of air in a clean room. Its characteristics: It should be considered to avoid or reduce eddy currents, which is conducive to the rapid and effective removal of pollutants. It should try to limit and reduce the diffusion of dust and bacteria emitted by indoor pollution sources, and maintain the required air cleanliness level for indoor production environment.
        Due to the unique nature of clean rooms, the selection of general lighting fixtures should be made with smooth exterior surfaces, few concave and convex surfaces that do not accumulate dust, are easy to clean, and are made of materials that do not generate static electricity. In addition to meeting the illumination requirements, the selection and layout of lighting fixtures should also be mainly considered based on the indoor airflow pattern. When the ceiling is a vertical unidirectional air supply outlet, such as in the lithography workshop of a large-scale integrated circuit factory......, The area of the high-efficiency filter air supply outlet can sometimes reach about 80% of the ceiling area, which brings difficulties to the layout of the lighting fixtures. At this time, it is advisable to choose tear drop fluorescent lamps, which have less impact on airflow and can be installed on the lower side of the high-efficiency filter dedicated aluminum profile frame (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). This not only does not hinder air supply but also effectively utilizes the only ceiling space. Depending on the ceiling module, different lengths of the lighting fixtures can be selected.
        For non unidirectional flow clean rooms, triangular ceiling fluorescent lamps or box type ceiling fluorescent lamps should be used. The layout of the lamps should preferably be continuous or intermittent, and should be arranged uniformly with fire alarm detectors, air conditioning vents, etc. For example, the electron gun assembly workshop in a certain picture tube factory has an area of 2160 ┫ (60 × 36). Double tube triangular ceiling fluorescent lamps are used, with 12 rows of intermittent escape bands and 20 lamps arranged in each row. The effect is relatively good. When installing ceiling fluorescent lamps, attention should be paid to using sealant and gaskets to achieve sealed installation, maintain the pressure difference in the clean room, and avoid pollution.
        A horizontal unidirectional flow clean room with a building floor height that is not too high. The supply and return air outlets are installed on the side walls, and the ceiling is convenient for lamp layout. Embedded fluorescent lamps can be used to minimize the impact on airflow
        With the rapid development of science and technology, new technologies, processes, and products are constantly emerging. There are more and more construction projects that require clean production environments. Currently, clean technology has been widely applied in important departments such as microelectronics, biopharmaceuticals, surgical medicine, precision instrument manufacturing, and medical devices. The illumination level should not be lower than 10% of the general lighting. The lighting fixtures can be of the same model as the general lighting fixtures in the clean room, with batteries inside. They operate normally as normal lighting and automatically switch to emergency lighting when there is a power outage. This method has independent functions, simple wiring, flexible application, and is less limited by external power sources. Another popular method currently is centralized power emergency lighting, which is powered by a centralized battery power supply device to disperse emergency lighting fixtures (without batteries). Normally, it is powered by the city, and when the city power is cut off, it automatically switches to the emergency power supply. When the mains power is restored, the power supply device automatically switches to mains power supply. The advantages of centralized power supply emergency lighting are convenient maintenance and management, long service life, strong power supply voltage stability, complete protection functions, faster starting than diesel generators, small footprint, and environmental protection. The disadvantage is that it requires additional wiring, and it is not as flexible as the built-in power supply emergency lighting. Once a fault occurs, the impact range is large. Compared with the built-in power supply emergency lighting, the comprehensive price is similar and slightly cheaper, which is worth promoting in the design of dust-free workshops.
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